Choline ComplexTM
180 Tablets $33.98

Choline is crucial for sustaining life.  It modulates the basic signaling processes within cells, is a structured element in membranes, and is vital during critical periods in brain development” [1].  It was discovered in 1862, yet it was not recognized as a required nutrient for humans until 1998 [1].

“Choline has several important functions:  it is a source of methyl groups needed to make S-adenosylmethionine, it is a part of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and it is a part of the predominant phospholipids in membranes (phosphatidylcholine and sphingomeyelin).  Betaine, formed from choline, is an important osmolyte in the kidney glomerulus and helps with the reabsorption of water from the kidney tubule.  Although they represent a smaller proportion of the total choline pool, important metabolites of choline include platelet-activating factor, choline plasmalogens, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine, and glycerophosphocholine” [1].
        
Choline is a quaternary amine which is required to make phospholipids and other substances necessary for all cell membranes, including myelin sheath which covers nerve cells.  It is necessary for gall bladder regulation, liver detoxification, carnitine metabolism, and nerve support.  Choline is needed to form the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.  Fatty deposits in the liver are associated with a choline deficiency.  Choline helps prevent the formation of fatty liver by promoting the production of lecithin.  Choline helps in the strengthening of weak capillaries, thereby helping in the reduction of hypertension.  Since choline deficiencies have been shown to raise cholesterol, it can be helpful for people with cholesterol concerns.  Choline is believed to help insure effective DNA repair.  Choline appears to be needed in serum plasma and various metabolic functions.  It may have beneficial effect for cholesterol as well as for people with Alzheimer's. High amounts of oral choline can result in dizziness, nausea, diarrhea, depression, and a fishy odor [2].  Postmenopausal women seem to need more choline than other women [1].
“Phosphatidylcholine  may be indicated to help restore liver function in a number of disorders, including alcoholic fibrosis, and possibly viral hepatitas.  It may also be indicated for the treatment of some manic conditions.  There is some evidence that Phosphatidylcholine may be useful in the management of Alzheimer’s disease and some other cognitive disorders.  A possible future role in cancer therapy is also suggested by recent research.  It may also be indicated in some with tardive dyskinesia.  Phosphatidiylcholine has been used to lower serum cholesterol levels, based on the premise that lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity has an important role in the removal of cholesterol from tissues” [3].
 
“Increased choline intake has recently been recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences for pregnant and nursing women to help ensure normal fetal brain development.  And, like phosphatidylcholine …, choline may be helpful in some liver diseases, manic conditions, cognitive disorders, tardive dyskinesea and, possibly, some cancers.” [3]

“Healthy humans with normal folate and vitamin B12 status who were fed a choline-deficient diet developed liver damage…a diet deficient in choline has major consequences including hepatic, renal, pancreatic, memory, and growth disorders…Large amounts of lipids (mainly triglycerides) can accumulate in the liver…Choline deficiency causes cancer in rodent models” [1]. 

Some have claimed that choline is vitamin B-4 and is helpful for cardiovascular health [4].  Yet while there are cardiovascular benefits associated with food choline, it appears that what was once called vitamin B-4 was probably more accurately a substance known as adenine [5], which is not choline.  Both adenine and choline play a role in ATP metabolism [1], and choline can have cardiovascular benefits, but calling it vitamin B-4 seems inaccurate.
Regarding choline, WebMD reports, “Athletes use it for bodybuilding and delaying fatigue in endurance sports” [6].  Low levels of choline have been found in endurance athletes and supplementation may decrease fatigue during exercise [7].
While probably the best food form in supplements is from specially-grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae, choline is also found in eggs (yolks) and liver [1,11].
The official Recommended Daily Intake of choline is as low as 125 mg per day for infants up to 6 months of age to as high as 550 mg per day for lactating women (the RDI for non-lactating women is 450 mg per day) [1].  The RDI for adult males is 550 mg per day [1].   
Many people simply take choline to feel better.
Choline Complex Video

Nutrition from food, what a concept!

References

[1] Zeisel S.  Choline.  In: Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 11th ed.  Wolters Kluwer| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012: 416-426
[2] Neumann C, ed. Serious Nutrition.  FR International, Canada, 2005
[3] Hendler SS, Rorvik DM.  PDR for Nutritional Supplements, 2nd edition.  Thomson Reuters, 2008, Montvale (NJ)
[4] Whelan WJ. What’s in a Name? Vitamin B4.  IUBMB Life, 57(2): 125, February 2005
[5] Vera Reader. The assay of vitamin B4. Biochem J. 1930; 24 (6): 1827–31
Choline. 
[6] WebMD.  http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-436-CHOLINE.aspx?activeIngredientId=436&activeIngredientName=CHOLINE viewed 07/02/13
[7] Castell LM, Burke LM, Stears SJ, et al. A-Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance. Part 9. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44(8):609-611
[8] Inositol. Web MD. http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-299-INOSITOL.aspx?activeIngredientId=299&activeIngredientName=INOSITOL viewed 05/14/13
[9] Andlid TA, Veide J, Sandberg AS. Metabolism of extracellular inositol hexaphosphate (phytate) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Int J. Food Microbiology. 2004;97(2):157-169
[10] Vitamin-Mineral Manufacturing Guide: Nutrient Empowerment, volume 1. Nutrition Resource, Lakeport (CA), 1986
[11] Balch JF, Balch PA. Prescription for a Nutritional Healing, 2nd ed. Avery Publishing, Garden City Park (NY), 1997

Some of these studies (or citations) may not conform to peer review standards, therefore, the results are not conclusive. Professionals can, and often do, come to different conclusions when reviewing scientific data. None of these statements have been reviewed by the FDA. All products distributed by Doctors’ Research, Inc. are nutritional and are not intended for the treatment or prevention of any medical condition.



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