180 Tablets $33.98
“Choline is crucial for sustaining life. It modulates the basic signaling processes within cells, is a structured element in membranes, and is vital during critical periods in brain development” . It was discovered in 1862, yet it was not recognized as a required nutrient for humans until 1998 .
“Choline has several important functions: it is a source of methyl groups needed to make S-adenosylmethionine, it is a part of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and it is a part of the predominant phospholipids in membranes (phosphatidylcholine and sphingomeyelin). Betaine, formed from choline, is an important osmolyte in the kidney glomerulus and helps with the reabsorption of water from the kidney tubule. Although they represent a smaller proportion of the total choline pool, important metabolites of choline include platelet-activating factor, choline plasmalogens, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine, and glycerophosphocholine” .
“Healthy humans with normal folate and vitamin B12 status who were fed a choline-deficient diet developed liver damage…a diet deficient in choline has major consequences including hepatic, renal, pancreatic, memory, and growth disorders…Large amounts of lipids (mainly triglycerides) can accumulate in the liver…Choline deficiency causes cancer in rodent models” .
Some have claimed that choline is vitamin B-4 and is helpful for cardiovascular health . Yet while there are cardiovascular benefits associated with food choline, it appears that what was once called vitamin B-4 was probably more accurately a substance known as adenine , which is not choline. Both adenine and choline play a role in ATP metabolism , and choline can have cardiovascular benefits, but calling it vitamin B-4 seems inaccurate.
Nutrition from food, what a concept!
References Zeisel S. Choline. In: Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 11th ed. Wolters Kluwer| Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012: 416-426
 Neumann C, ed. Serious Nutrition. FR International, Canada, 2005
 Hendler SS, Rorvik DM. PDR for Nutritional Supplements, 2nd edition. Thomson Reuters, 2008, Montvale (NJ)
 Whelan WJ. What’s in a Name? Vitamin B4. IUBMB Life, 57(2): 125, February 2005
 Vera Reader. The assay of vitamin B4. Biochem J. 1930; 24 (6): 1827–31
 WebMD. http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-436-CHOLINE.aspx?activeIngredientId=436&activeIngredientName=CHOLINE viewed 07/02/13
 Castell LM, Burke LM, Stears SJ, et al. A-Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance. Part 9. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44(8):609-611
 Inositol. Web MD. http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-299-INOSITOL.aspx?activeIngredientId=299&activeIngredientName=INOSITOL viewed 05/14/13
 Andlid TA, Veide J, Sandberg AS. Metabolism of extracellular inositol hexaphosphate (phytate) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Int J. Food Microbiology. 2004;97(2):157-169
 Vitamin-Mineral Manufacturing Guide: Nutrient Empowerment, volume 1. Nutrition Resource, Lakeport (CA), 1986
 Balch JF, Balch PA. Prescription for a Nutritional Healing, 2nd ed. Avery Publishing, Garden City Park (NY), 1997
Some of these studies (or citations) may not conform to peer review standards, therefore, the results are not conclusive. Professionals can, and often do, come to different conclusions when reviewing scientific data. None of these statements have been reviewed by the FDA. All products distributed by Doctors’ Research, Inc. are nutritional and are not intended for the treatment or prevention of any medical condition.